Frequency Containment Reserve for Normal Operation (FCR-N) - The "TOUGH" V2G Service

Previous two articles in this series: Frequency Controlled Disturbance Reserves (FCR-D): The Dream V2G Service? and V2G Electric Grid Services - Flexibility is "King" dealt with “FCR-D services in the Nordic Synchronous Area. Now let’s take a closer look at FCR-N – Frequency-Controlled Normal Operation Reserve.

The Nordic Synchronous Grid supports ~30 million customers in Eastern Denmark, Sweden, Norway, and Finland. Energy services are traded on the Nord Pool exchange.

From Energinet, the Danish TSO:

The FCR-N ensures that the equilibrium between generation and demand is restored, keeping the frequency close to 50 Hz. FCR-N is automatic regulation and consists of both upward and downward regulation and is provided as a symmetrical reserve where upward and downward regulation reserves are procured together.

The FCR-N must be supplied at a frequency deviation of up to +/-100 mHz relative to the reference frequency of 50 Hz. This means in the 49.9-50.1 Hz range. The reserve must as a minimum be supplied linearly at frequency deviations of between 0 and 100 mHz. The activated reserve must be supplied within 150 seconds, regardless of the size of the deviation.”

The FCR-N service was investigated thoroughly in the Danish Parker project (2016-2019), using a fleet of different EVs: Nissan Leaf, Nissan e-NV200 Evalia, Mitsubishi Outlander and Peugeot iOn, as well as a fleet of 10 Nissan e-NV200 vans.

While analyzing the FCR-N pricing from 1/1/2022 until 3/31/2023 (see Figure) based on Energinet data. The daily procured volume (Eastern Denmark and Sweden) was around 260 MW (Denmark ~ 18 MW the rest from Sweden - the total FCR-N market is around 600 MW).

As the chart shows the FCR-N average pricing was € 56.14 MW/hr. Bidding 10 kW power for 14 hours per day would yield revenue of € 56.14 * (10kW/1000kW) * 14 hours * 365 days = € 2,869 per year.

The FCR-N service is continuously active charging or discharging every second depending on the deviation from the nominal grid frequency of 50 Hz.

So how much energy must be delivered to earn a revenue of € 2,869/year?

An analysis of the grid frequency (1 sample per second) from 10/01/2016 to 12/30/2017 showed the following for FCR-N:

- Samplings = 39,101,840
- Days = 452
- Hours = 10,861
- FCR-N seconds = 35,214,311 equals 90.06% active of total time

- TOTAL Energy = 37,156 kWh (Energy flow up/down)
- DOWN Energy = -19,080 kWh (Charge)
- UP Energy = +18,076 kWh (Discharge)
- NET Energy = -1,004 kWh (Net Energy flow)

- 1 HOUR Energy = 3.4 kWh (Energy flow up/down)
- 14 HOUR Energy = 48.0 kWh (Energy flow up/down)
- 24 HOUR Energy = 82.2 kWh (Energy flow up/down)

In summary a very demanding high energy V2G service with energy flow equivalent to ~ 1 battery cycle per day (24 kWh battery, 14 hours service) which would equal ~43,800 km driving per year just for the V2G service.

It is a small shallow market (600 MW for the Nordics), price good (for now), but with high energy flow of the battery (and no net metering). A "TOUGH"😰😰😰V2G service.

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